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Description of the coast and regional history


Ivangorod was chosen as the start for water route, it’s a small historical town that is definitely interesting for tourists. There are a lot of historical places in the town. First of all, Ivangorod fortress was founded in 1492 according to the Great Prince Ivan the III dictate and got its name in his honor. Neighborhood of Narva castle, founded by Dutch knights 150 years earlier Ivangorod, gives a specific beauty and uniqueness to the fortress. The ensemble of two confronting fortresses, situated in different countries, built in different ages, in different styles is unique. There are no such places in the world!

The next interesting historical object in Ivangorod is the whole micro district - Parusinka. This southern part of the town is a well-kept pattern of industrial architecture of the middle of XIX century and is connected to the name of Alexander Shtiglits. Manufacturer, Maecenas, state figure, he founded State bank of Russia, industry-building college (Today of Mukhina name) in Saint-Petersburg, built railways. In Ivangorod he had his estate, also here, in the cathedral of Saint Trinity that was built on his means, there is a grave of all the members of the Shtiglits family. The cathedral suffered a lot during the Second World War and for the latest time has been reconstructed by the fund “The centre of Russian national fame”.

Parusinka is remarkable for one more interesting object – nature monument – Narva waterfalls. Narva waterfalls consist of two parts, bisected by Krengolm Island. Their total length is 125 meters, height is between 4 and 7 meters. The volume of falling water is 1200m3 per a second. It’s one of the widest and powerful waterfalls in Europe. But, more often there is no water in waterfalls, as after the construction of Narvskaya hydroelectric power station, this powerful torrent was directed for making peaceful energy. Now waterfalls come to life only in the periods of technological necessity of the power station.

Two museums, working in Ivangorod, can be also referred to historical objects. They are: museum of local lore and history with the exhibition of works made by Russian graphic and illustrations artists, the most famous of which is Ivan Yakovlevich Bilibin, an illustration artist of Russian folk fairy-tails; with an exposition that tells about the regional history and the Northern War. The second one is a museum of defensive architecture of north-west of Russia with the models of defensive fortifications (fortresses, cloisters) of IX-XV centuries and the displays of archeological dig.

Kampergolm Island

On the island there was a command post of Peter the First’s army during the first significant battle between Russian and Sweden armies in the North War. The battle took place on the 19th of November in 1700.

Defensive line of the Russian army situated on the left bank of the Narova and was elongated for some km. In the island zone a bridge for passage of soldiers and arms was built. According to appraisals of different scientists the number of Russian army was from 25 to 35 thousands soldiers and officers, most of whom were recruits; with the exception of two guards regiments Semenovskiy and Preobrazhenskiy, officers were mostly foreigners. Sweden army, at the head of which was Karl XII, was well educated, had experience of battles and its number under Narova was from 8 000 up to 25 000 people.

The main blow of Sweden army was directed to the right flank (island area). The high command at the head of which was general de Croa, surrendered, a panic started in the Russian army, and built passage broke down, not bearing the heaviness and turmoil. Two guard regiments were fighting bravely, beating off enemies’ attacks. The battle lasted for three days with variable success and finished with Russian army capitulation and as a consequence with Russian lost of the way to the Baltic Sea. Loss from Russian part was 8 000 people and almost the whole artillery; from Sweden part – 3000 soldiers and officers.

In honor of the soldiers fighting bravely in this battle memorable crosses were placed on both sides of the Narova in the Zone of Kampergolm Island.

In 1704 during the Peter the First’s army next battle for Narva, a command post again was situated on this island. The result of the battle was absolutely different. Narva was smashed for 45 minutes after a powerful artillery bombardment. Ivangorod fortress surrendered a week later.

The victory over Narva gave Russia a way to Baltic Sea, an opportunity of free international trade and development.

Feduninskie hills

This historic place is connected with the events of the Second World War, with the battle for Narva and Ivangorod release in 1944.

Narva was strengthened so much that soviet soldiers couldn’t conquer it for half of the year. Kingisepp, for example, was released on the 1st of February in 1944 and Ivangorod and Narva managed to be released only on 24-26 of July in 1944.

In these hills there was the second standing army under the direction of general I.I.Feduninskiy. From here the order about the offensive on Narva, that was acted outflank was given. In Narva release 40 000 soldiers died.

In honor of these events a memorable stele was placed.

First custom house on the Narova
(the place where the Rosson flows into the Narova from the Gulf of Finland side)

According to historical annals, the outlet into the Narova from The Gulf of Narva has been guarded at all times. There is a mention that here there was a fortress, protecting ships of dealers as at the middle ages as earlier. It’s connected to the fact that water ways at the times when there wasn’t the Internet or cars, were the safest and the cheapest. It is much easier to carry any load by water than to pave the way through unknown area and have problems with native population, who are not always friendly. The Narova as well as Narva was a place of strategical interest, because the only water way from the Baltic Sea to Pskov was the Narova River.

In the long period of Russian-Sweden confrontation the interests of two countries agreed about the Narova River, upon which Russians either got the right to carry their goods or lost it. Long before Saint-Petersburg Ivangorod became a water capital of Russia in Baltic region, from this place Russian trade fleet and international trade started.

The interests of entrepreneurs had to be protected and for this purpose a fortress near the Narova mouth was built.

There is also information that one more fortress was standing on the left bank of the Narova. The exact position of the fortresses isn’t pointed, equally now we don’t have any of the remains of these buildings.
In one of the military lull periods and trade prosperity exactly in the Rosson mouth near the mouth of the Narova the first Russian custom house appeared.

It’s also interesting that many ships, sailing to Narva with the load of goods, couldn’t reach the final destination, crashing during the storms and in low water of guileful Gulf of Narva. There are some documentary evidences that during the storm decades of ships went down. Military confrontation also helped many ships to sink. All this treasure now is interesting for archeologists and treasure hunters, who call Narva gulf one of the most interesting and rich in treasure places.

Venekulia village

In translation from Estonian language is called “Russian”. The earth, where the village is situated, after the Peter the First’s victory in the North War belonged to Russia. And in the second half of the XIIIV century was presented to the princess Ekaterina Dashkova by Ekaterina the Second.

Sarkulia village

A monument to I. Severianin Russian name of the village can be translated as “Insular”. Geographically it is right as the village is washed by water from all sides: from the north – by waters of Narva Gulf, from the west – by the Narova, from the south – by the Rosson and from the east – by not kept river, connected Lake Silent with the Gulf of Narva. Appeared island was 4 kms long and 1,5 kms wide. Nowadays this plot is not an island any more and Sarkulia is the only village kept on the relative island. The rest villages were either destroyed or abandoned. According to the native inhabitants memories before the Second World War the village was quite big, there was a school and a church there.

During the civil war strong battles with North-west army of Yudenich were held here. The Great patriotic war also left its print here.

Since 1918 till 1940 all Prinarovie acres, including Sarkulia and Venekulia, belonged to Estonian republic. In 1936-1940 a Great Russian poet of the Silver age Igor Severianin lived in Sarkulia. At the place, where the house that he rented was, there is a memorable plaque now.

Every year the festival of author’s song in the name of Severianin is held in the village.
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European Union Community Initiative INTERREG